A questionnaire was initially used in order to collect background information about the trainee translators attending the Translation Studies programme at the University of Birmingham, to define the context of the study and the variables affecting translator training. This preliminary approach was then followed by a translation task. The students were required to perform a translation task which included translating a text and simultaneously commenting on the translation according to a pre-prepared form. The source text was an excerpt from a tourist information brochure.
The text was also short to encourage students to participate in the study as the task can be time consuming. Students were required to translate the text into another language as they speak different native languages. They were asked to assume that the target audience was similar to that of the source text. Students were informed that they were free to use dictionaries or reference material and discuss their translation with whoever they wish and no time frame was given. The trainees were asked to complete a form whilst translating. This provided them with a systematic way of recording all information related to their decision-making processes whilst completing the task.
The form included six sections which allowed the participants to record: Literature on translation problems indicates that there is no agreement on a clear definition of what a translation problem is see Toury Therefore, no specific definition of translation problems was given to the students in order to examine the way they perceive these problems. They were not provided with any specific classification of translation problems, information sources or strategies to avoid offering a list of predefined categories that would force them either to select a category, which may not reflect their actual response, or skip filling in sections of the form because they could not find an appropriate answer.
The information resources were defined as hard copy documents such as dictionaries , electronic sources or human sources for example, a fellow student Gile Thus, the definition of strategies was: The data for this case study was collected at three stages during the academic year in the Autumn, Spring and Summer terms and the analysis involved a comparison of data between the three periods.
During the three stages of the data collection process, the participants were provided with texts of a similar genre tourist texts and length to translate no more than words. The data produced by the study was analysed using the appraisal system developed by Martin and White , within the framework of Functional Grammar Halliday and Matthiessen , for exploring interpersonal meanings by explaining and describing the way language users evaluate arguments, adopt textual stances and negotiate positioning and relationships White It served to examine the language employed by the students in discussing their translation decisions in order to investigate the way they positioned themselves in their arguments.
According to Martin and White Since the focus in the present study is on the stance adopted by trainee translators while discussing their translation decisions, the data provided by the students was analysed and discussed according to the Engagement domain of the appraisal system. Bare assertions obviously contrast with these heteroglossic options in not overtly referencing other voices or recognising alternative positions. As a consequence, the communicative context is construed as single voiced Martin and White Examining the system of engagement as used by the students will allow us to investigate the way they positioned their voices in respect to other voices in the communicative context construed while discussing their translation decisions.
According to the system of engagement, heteroglossic clauses can be divided into: In dialogic contractive, speakers or writers can either:. They indicate that their proposition is one of a wide range of possible positions by either:. The unit of analysis in functional terms is the clause complex: One of the problems with applying appraisal theory to the language used by the students is that many clauses included more than one token of evaluation which posed difficulty in classifying these clauses, as was the case in example Therefore, although in Functional Grammar the unit of analysis is the clause complex, it was more effective in the present study to consider both the clause complex and tokens of evaluation as units of analysis, and discuss the data accordingly.
Based on this, in example 1, we have two attitudinal clauses and four attitudinal tokens in the two clauses, each including instances of both denial and counter-expectancy. Because this was a small-scale study, data provided in the questionnaire was analysed manually. Raw frequencies and percentages were used to quantify the data. Percentage difference across the three stages was calculated using an online calculator  in order to examine whether there was a difference in the percentages of the raw frequencies in the data collected.
In the analysis, we focused on the most prominent patterns which reflected a change in the data collected throughout the academic year. A test of statistical significance was also performed in order to test whether there was a significant difference in the data provided by the students across the three stages. It has to be acknowledged that this methodology, coupled with the small sample size and the fact that a number of participants opted to leave the study before it was concluded, creates the possibility of several types of bias: In order for the conclusions made in this study to validated, the observations would need to be repeated with a new group and a clear hypothesis established before the start of data collection.
However, using this test helped us to determine how high or low the probability that the decrease or increase in the data throughout the three stages was due to chance.
The chi-square test compares the values of the data proportionally where probability values P of 0. Thus, the null hypothesis H 0 in the present study is that any difference between the data presented by the students at each stage is due to chance, and therefore not significant. If the calculated value of the chi-square is less than or equal to the probability value of 0. There was a drop-off of The data of the students who dropped out of the study was removed and therefore only the data of the twelve students four males and eight females who took part in all three stages of the study was included.
It seems that the participants had many common characteristics: On the other hand, these participants came from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The respondents who took part in all the three stages of the study were given codes according to their gender M for male and F for female , in addition to a numeric value added to each of these codes. The two letter code system of languages ISO was also used to indicate the language of the target text. Most of the participants translated the text from English into their first language Chinese: DE as English was their second language.
Only three of the students were native English speakers and therefore translated the text into their second language French: The decision to use English as the source language in this study may have affected the translators' levels of confidence, as students translating into their native language might present different levels of self-assertion than students translating into their second language.
However, this was alleviated by choosing a text with a certain level of syntactical difficulty that is meant to pose the same level of difficulty for both native English speakers and speakers of English as a second language, as previously mentioned. In addition, the interest in this study was in the way the translators perceived translation problems and justified their decisions rather than in how they approached these specific texts.
Clauses used by the students in the forms were categorised as monoglossic when they did not include any tokens of engagement, and heteroglossic when they did. Thus they were classified according to whether the students negotiated their decisions by making a reference to alternative voices and viewpoints or presented their justifications objectively, as is clear in example In this example, student F8FR justified including an explanation of her translation of the title of the text into French, using monoglossic and heteroglossic clauses.
In some cases, an elliptical subject and finite were assumed. Since these cases are less clear cut than those where the subject and finite are explicit, and they involve an extra layer of interpretation on the part of the researcher, these clauses were considered separately from the explicit ones, so as to offer a more transparent view of the analysis. Table 1 gives an overview of results.
By looking at Table 1, we can notice that the students used more monoglossic clauses than heteroglossic clauses while discussing translation problems, which is expected. A diachronic comparison shows that the number of monoglossic clauses increased by 2. This number further increased by 1. This suggests that students showed a stable preference towards monoglossic clauses throughout the programme.
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Concerning the number of heteroglossic tokens, the comparison of the three stages of data analysis indicates that the number of heteroglossic tokens used in the language offered by the students decreased by 0. This supports the H 1, and suggests that the decrease in the number of heteroglossic tokens by the end of the year is not due to chance.
Thus, despite the fact that no significant changes were observed in the number of heteroglossic clauses, the decrease in the number of heteroglossic tokens towards the end of the year is significant and the changes in the percentages of heteroglossic clauses and tokens are parallel and consistent with one another, as Figure 1 shows. This could allow us to tentatively hypothesise that trainee translators become more assertive after following a translation training programme. The heteroglossic tokens provided by the students in the forms were classified into contractive and expansive tokens.
This classification was based on whether the students included or excluded alternative viewpoints while discussing their translation decisions. When students included alternative viewpoints, they used expansive tokens of the type employed in example When students excluded alternative viewpoints, they used contractive tokens, similar to the one employed by student M2DE in example 4 below. Both contractive and expansive tokens were employed by the trainee translators in their discussion of translation decisions.
Comparing the number of contractive and expansive tokens out of the total number of heteroglossic tokens indicates that most of the tokens used by the students were contractive see example 4 above , challenging other textual voices, rather than expansive, through which they allowed alternative opinions to take part in the argument during the three stages, as in example 3 see Figure 2. The percentage for the contractive and expansive tokens used by the students. The comparison of the percentages of expansive tokens across the three stages indicates that they remained stable, as Table 2 shows.
This suggests that translation training affects the way students present their discussion of translation problems, making them less concerned about excluding alternative opinions and viewpoints while following a translation training programme. The expansive tokens used by the students in the forms were of an entertaining type, where the students showed their subjectivity while opening their arguments for discussion, as is evident in example 5 below. Concerning the types of contractive token used, the students first proclaimed and limited the scope of their arguments by either pronouncing or concurring with different opinions, as is evident in examples 6 and The students also disclaimed and rejected contrary positions by either using counter expectancy conjunctions or negation, as is clear in example 8.
By classifying the contractive tokens employed by the students into disclaim and proclaim, we will examine whether the students excluded alternative opinions and closed down their arguments by challenging alternative textual voices, using tokens of disclaim, or by endorsing different opinions through the employment of tokens of proclaim. This will help us investigate in more depth the changes in the manner in which trainee translators justified their decisions while following the translation training programme.
The comparison of the percentages of disclaim and proclaim tokens used by the students out of the total number of contractive tokens indicates the overall prominence of disclaim tokens throughout the three stages, as Figure 3 shows. The percentage for the types of contractive tokens used by the students.
Table 3 indicates that the percentages of tokens of proclaim remained stable across the three stages.
By comparing the percentages of contractive tokens of disclaim out of the total number of words, we find that the number of tokens where the students disclaimed alternative opinions decreased by 1. This result supports the H 1 and suggests that this is not due to chance and could be related to translation training. The decrease in the number of tokens of disclaim reflects the decrease in the total number of contractive tokens. This also suggests that the students become less willing to engage with alternative viewpoints after following a translation training programme. This study of the engagement system in the data provided by the students indicates a decrease in the number of heteroglossic tokens by the end of the academic year in comparison with the beginning of the year.
This finding may indicate that trainee translators adopt a more assertive positioning in their discussion of translation problems after following a translation training programme. This assertiveness was reflected in the decrease in the number of contractive tokens, more specifically tokens of disclaim, towards the end of the year.
This suggests that this assertive positioning on the part of trainee translators is signalled by fewer cases of heteroglossia used to challenge alternative opinions. Thus the students seemed to be less willing to engage with alternative viewpoints, which could be interpreted as an increased confidence in their own judgement. However, it also suggests that trainee translators become less considerate of alternative viewpoints and opinions and thus, arguably, become less critical.
This might necessitate a reconsideration of translation training approaches followed in such translation training programmes.
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- How To Use The Struggles Of The Past As The Springboard To Your Successful Future (Ultimate Success Program Book 1);
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It might also become important to reconsider priorities in translation training programmes in a way that helps the trainee translators to increase their ability to justify their decisions and claim their rights as active participants in the translation process. In this respect, the context of this study can be extended to include more than one translation training programme. It is advisable to use a more homogenous sample of trainees within specific language pairs which would allow the researcher to also analyze the translated texts and examine the effect of following the translating training programme on their skills in translation.
What Do They Need to Learn? Martin, James Robert, and Peter R. An Accelerated Course , London, Routledge. I am currently a tutor and a second marker for the specialized translation projects at the University of Birmingham.
La Rivincita di Amleto (Italian Edition)
My research interests are translation training and translation of news. Technologies are used in all phases of any translation process, from the reception of the source texts until the delivery of the translated texts.
The use of translation technologies has been steadily increasing since their appearance in the field of professional translation, resulting in the birth of a wide variety of tools and resources. Ever since, the very same technologies have generated the need to translate a range of formats that can only be translated using digital tools websites, smart-phone apps, TV apps, ecc.
This course is based on the following premises: Finally, we present some proposals to complete and further expand its contents.
Guide La Rivincita di Amleto (Italian Edition)
Dopo una panoramica della formazione in tecnologie per la traduzione negli stati italiano e spagnolo e una breve ricognizione bibliografica sulla didattica delle tecnologie per la traduzione, si descrivono i contenuti, i materiali e la metodologia didattica di un corso realizzato ad-hoc. Infine si presentano delle proposte che completano e ampliano ulteriormente il corso.
In the real world, we have to teach right now. La sezione 2 include una breve ricognizione bibliografica delle ricerche sulla didattica delle tecnologie per la traduzione e sulle competenze strumentali. La sezione 4, infine, raccoglie le considerazioni conclusive e cerca di suggerire un possibile schema di contenuti basato sul corso proposto che lo completi e lo amplii.
Per quanto riguarda la formazione specialistica in traduzione, va sottolineato che non tutti i corsi di laurea a cui si riferiscono le informazioni riportate includono corsi di tecnologie per la traduzione. Vari ricercatori si sono occupati di quali debbano essere i contenuti dei corsi di tecnologie per la traduzione.
- La Rivincita di Amleto (Italian Edition).
- bastardherz: gedichte & bilder (German Edition);
- Guide La Rivincita di Amleto (Italian Edition)!
- Blue Squad: One Last Go (Shades of Viscain)?
Si noti che Pym Il laboratorio era fornito di computer Windows connessi a Internet una postazione per ogni studente e di un proiettore, tramite il quale lo schermo del docente veniva proiettato sulla lavagna.